Lindiwe Mthimunye

Chairperson of GPF

Screen Shot 2018-10-08 at 15.17.42

Lindiwe is a qualified as a Chartered Accountant having served articles at KPMG.  She started her merchant banking career in 1999 with Rand Merchant Bank, as a Structured Financier focusing on property finance. She moved on to Project Finance to specialise in concessions, public private partnerships and infrastructure finance. Her role entailed financial advisory, debt and equity structuring and arranging.

Read more

From 2006 to 2012 – Lindiwe worked as an Independent financial advisor on infrastructure projects and acquisitions.

2013 to 2015, Lindiwe joined PetroSA assuming the role of Group CFO responsible for the accounting function, taxation, treasury, insurance, supply chain and information services.

Lindiwe has served as a non-executive director of a number of listed and private companies, and as a member of the audit and risk committee, and social & ethics committee.

 

She currently serves on the following boards:

 

Pioneer Foods Limited, Torre Industries Limited, Hyundai Automotive South Africa, Liquid Capital (Pty) Ltd, and Open Society foundation of SA (NPO).

 

Previous boards include:-

 

Woolworths Holdings Limited, Group 5 Limited, Sea Harvest (Pty) Ltd, Imperial Bank Limited, Futuregrowth Asset Management, Rand Merchant Bank Junior Board, Saatchi & Saatchi , and PetroSA.

 

National Empowerment Fund (NEF) Investment Committee.

Nkomotana Clifford Motsepe

Deputy Chairperson of GPF

Nkomotana began his career as a Practicing Attorney with Mankoe Incorporated in 2000, representing clients in both the public and private sectors. He moved on to the Department of Health as Senior Manager: Procurement, where he was responsible for overall strategic management, and compliance with the PFMA and other relevant legislation.

Read more

Nkomotana then served as Company Secretary and Legal Advisor to the Polokwane International Airport, Municipal Manager of the Waterberg District, and as Acting Senior General Manager in the Policy and Planning Coordination Unit in the Office of the Premier.

 

In 2009 he became Head of the Department of Cooperative Governance, Human Settlements and Traditional Affairs in Limpopo Province, responsible for the strategic leadership of 30 municipalities, and the Headmen, Senior Traditional Leaders and Kings in the province.

He progressed to become MEC responsible for this department and later an MP in the Limpopo Provincial Legislature.  Nkomotana served on the SABC Board from 2010 to 2011.  In 2014, he focussed again on the legal sector, serving his pupillage with the Johannesburg Bar of Advocates until his admission to the Bar.  He currently practices as an Advocate with the Duma Nokwe Group of Advocates.

 

Previous boards include:-

SABC board 2010 to 2011

Simphiwe Dzengwa

CEO

l am a highly-experienced business executive with extensive senior management experience in the government, public and private sector organisations. I possess 22 years strategic, operational, management and executive experience in leading and managing large business units, teams, departments and companies in challenging and diverse environments.

Read more

Currently the Executive Director: Municipal Finance, Trade and Investments at the South African Local Government Association where i am responsible for oversight of local government financial performance. Prior to this f occupied key roles at various institutions including being CEO at Innovate Eastern Cape, Project Management Specialist at Eastern Cape Provincial Treasury, CEO at Hluma Development Investment Agency, Program Manager at DBSA Development Fund, Head of Research and Product Development at ABSA and Chief Director at the Department of Provincial & Local Government.

I possess international working experience having worked earlier on in my career at the National Black Caucus of State Legislators in Washington DC and City of Lauderhill Finance Department in Florida. I have also travelled extensively internationally executing various business assignments.

Proven strategic management skiils with the unique ability to work with stakeholders in the design and implementation of business, client, governance, investment, and P&L strategles as well as the ability to execute through people.

Additionally, i possess excellent financial management pedigree and consider myself to be an accomplished financial manager having successfully worked alongside CEOs, board of directors and top executives in strategic decision making, growing organizations and organizational management.

 

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

 

Position: Executive Director

Company: Municipal Finance at the South African Local Government Association

Period: May 2014 to current

Scope of Work Done:

Responsible for the over sighting of local government financial performance.

 

PROFESSIONAL SKILLS

Strategic Business Management

Vision, Strategy, Execution & Leadership Operations Management

Corporate Affairs and Communication

Continuous Improvement / Business Re-engineering Strategic Human Resources Management

Supply Chain / Procurement Management Organizational Design and Restructuring

Financial Management & Strategy

Financial Planning, Reporting & Analysis

Cost and Budget Leadership

Auditing, Financial Control & Revenue Assurance Corporate Governance and Compliance

Project Management

Strategy Development and Execution

Risk Analysis and Management

Stakeholder and Relationship Management

Board and Governance Reporting

Commercial Contract Management

PERSONALITY TRAITS

Strong organisational leadership capabilities Creative, hands on with multi-tasking ability

Highly organised, diplomatic and goal orientated Natural people skills, self-motivated and passionate Innovative with lateral thinking ability

QUALIFICATIONS

2016 ~— Certificate in Development Finance University of Stellenbosch

2004 Master of Business Administration (MBA) Rhodes University. Major: Finances, Strategy and Management

1995 Master of Public Administration (MPA) Florida Atlantic University, USA Maior: Public Budgeting, Public Administration and Economic Development

1994 Bachelor of Arts~ Honors University of the Western Cape Major: Political Science

1993 _ Bachelor of Arts University of the Western Cape Major: Political Science and Sociology

1988 Matric, 1988 Nompendulo High School Coordination of capacity building for councilors, internal audit units and audit committees.

Liaison with Treasury and the Department of Cooperative FURTHER TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Governance in proposing municipal fiscal framework

2016 Certificate In Development Finance determination University of Stellenbosch Business Schoo!

Liaison with other stakeholders in supporting municipalities

2001 Course on Infrastructure Financing and improve on their audit outcomes. Development

I serve as part of the SALGA management structure

2000 Course on Management Information Systems represent SALGA in various inter-organizational platforms such Plan as those with Parliament, ESKOM, DBSA, IMFO, Cities Network,

2000 Certificate in Performance Budgeting and Finance and Fiscal Commission, etc. This exposes me and places PEA esa Fa Reva

1999 Certificate, Inter-Governmental Fiscal me at the forefront of legislative and other financial reforms of Relations the state, the performance and capacity building within the

1999 Government Budgeting, local government sphere and senior government decision

1989 World Class Business Practice Training making processes in general. Development Bank of South Africa

I have acquired and performed at a senior level when it comes 1998 Provisioning Administration to Cabinet matters, senior government officials’ affairs, Facilitated by the Department of State development financial institutions and Board/Board Expenditure Committees management and reporting.

1998 Certificate in Project Management Training, German Foundation for International

I travel extensively representing local government in various Development (DSE} forums, meeting with municipal stakeholders, conducting

1997 Public Policy Analysis and Implementation, research and lobbying and advocating on behalf of local Eastern Cape Youth Commission & Fort Hare government. Institute of Government

1996 Certificate “The Role of Peoples’ Organizations Position: Chief Executive Officer and Nation Bullding” Company: INNOVATE Eastern Cape (formerly Eastern Cape Israel Center for International Cooperation Innovation Hub)

1995 Certificate in Confidence, Assertiveness and Period: March 2011 – April 2014 Coping, AFRICARE Washington, DC, USA. Scope of Work Done: 1995 Certificate, Group Facilitator

Appointed by the Department of Economic Development, Environmental Affairs and Tourism (under the auspices of the 1995 East London Industrial Development Zone) to set up and operationalize the Innovation Hub as the overall champion and coordinator of all Eastern Cape innovation initiatives. 1994. This includes being the accounting officer of the entity, playing a pivotal role in supporting the Science and Technology Parks, coordinating and pulling together social, public and private sector stakeholders to cooperate In producing innovative technologies and products within the province for commercialization, job creation and economic development.

Among my accomplishments are the following:

South African Student Orientation Program, Lincoln University, Pennsylvania, USA. Certificate, Skills for Professional Effectiveness Aurora Associates International & National Council of Negro Women, Virginia, USA. Certificate, Peer Leadership

University of Western Cape

Successful crafting of a provincial innovation strategy and business plan which were adopted by the provincial Executive Council

Lobbying and winning the rights to host and hosted a successful Global Forum for Innovation and Technology Entrepreneurship in partnership with the World Bank Lobbied for and hosted the Africa Chapter of Science Parks Toured all Scandinavian countries forging partnerships with various Sctence and Technology Parks and studying their systems of innovation

Identifying various innovation project initiatives and forging partnerships for these; etc.

Position: Project Management Specialist

Company: Eastern Cape Provincial Treasury Period: April 2010 — March 2011 Scope of Work Done:

Program leader of a multi-disciplinary team of specialists supporting the turn-around plans for the Departments of Education and Department of Health.

The mandate of the team is to assist executive management within the departments in conceptualizing, planning and executing a holistic turn-around plan to address issues raised by the Auditor-General and other intervention measures that were brought about before.

The team focuses mainly on financial, supply chain, human resources, planning and other critical areas of strategic need.

My responsibilities include liaising with the MEC and the Head of Department, coaching and mentorship of senior managers, assist with planning and analysis, reporting to Treasury and the provincial Cabinet.

Position: Chief Executive Officer

Company: Hluma Development Investment Agency Period: July 2007 — December 2009

Scope of Work Done:

Promoted and seconded by the Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) to head and manage Hiuma. This agency Is a joint venture between DBSA and Old Mutual to facilitate and package investments focusing initially on the Wild Coast of the Eastern Cape. My responsibilities include: e identification and facilitation of bankable project opportunities e Facilitating and managing relationships with various land owning entities and municipalities e Technically packaging projects for submission to and approval by the Board and Investment Committee @ Managing relations with the shareholder entities e Collaborating with various other investment and development agencies Working closely with government departments Managing staff and internal operations of the entity and service as the accounting officer of Hluma.

Position: Program Manager Company: DBSA Development Fund Period: May 2006 – July 2007 Scope of Work Done:

BOARD MEMBERSHIPS

Board Member of the Municipal Demarcation Board and serve in the Audit, Remco and as the chairperson of the Boundaries, Powers and Functions sub- committees

Board Member of the Gauteng Cricket Board. Serve In the Finance; Audit and Risk; and Communications and Marketing Committees

Former Board Member of the Chris Hani Development Agency

Member of the Eastern Cape Parks and Tourism Agency Audit and Risk Committee

Former Member of the Audit and Risk Committee of the Eastern Cape Provincial Department of Social Development and Special Programs

  • Former Board member of the Amatola Water and member of the Finance Committee and the Strategy and Business Development Committee

Former Non-Executive Director of the Johannesburg Property Company, an entity of the City of Johannesburg and Chairperson of the Transactions Committee

Former member of the Audit and Risk Committee of the Department of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs (COGTA); the Department of Traditional Affairs and the Municipal Infrastructure Support Agency

Former Audit Committee Member of the Mangaung Local Municipality and its corporate entity Centlec

Former Non-Executive Director and Audit Committee Member of the Rooderport Pro-Musica Civic Theatre

Former Audit Committee Member for the Mnquma Local Municipality Member of the Black Management Forum Member of the Institute of Directors

Member of the Chartered Institute of Government Finance, Audit and Risk Officers

AWARDS

Scholarship, Nedbank and Public Affairs Research Institute (PARI — WITS University) to study for a PhD program at Wits

Full Bursary, Easter Cape Provincial Treasury (taken over by DPLG) to study towards an MBA degree at Rhodes University.

Scholarship, Mombusho (Japanese Ministry of Education), to register as a research student for a one year period at the Osaka University in Japan, 1998.

Scholarship, Israel Institute for International Cooperation, to do training on Local Economic Development in israel, 1996. e My overall responsibilities include assisting with the conceptualization and refinement of management systems for the Siyenza Manije Initiative.

As the Coordinator in the Back Office, | do the overall administrative monitoring of initiatives being undertaken in all provinces and municipalities, coordinate various stakeholders who are part of the initiative, assist deployees and other Program Managers when they encounter problems and in ensuring success of their activities.

Attend to funding issues of the initiative and creatively managing the balance between the project and other initiatives within the DBSA-DF.

I also provide policy and strategic advice to the DF.

Position: Head – Research and Product Development

Company: ABSA Head Office, Johannesburg

Period: January 2004 ~ May 2005

Scope of Work Done:  My responsibilities included creating interconnections between ABSA’s Public Sector Banking Unit with various

government entities

Initiating research on new products required by or desirable to the bank’s clients

Strategically positioning products against those of competitors

Researching and driving the banks’ public sector tender contracts

Planning and implementing coordination mechanisms among the bank’s various units in terms of their public-sector engagements

Assisting in providing structured finance advice for public sector clients and projects, part of the unit’s management team, and making recommendations on the bank’s strategic positioning and compliance in terms of public sector Jegislation.

Position: Chief Director – Municipal Finances and Performance Management Company: ABSA Head Office, Johannesburg

Period: February 2002 — January 2004

Scope of Work Done:

  • I was responsible for the overall coordination and program management of the chief directorates’ human, material and financial resources.

My areas of responsibility included fiscal transfers to municipalities (equitable share modeling and administration), management and disbursement of conditional grants; researching and development of municipal finance policies (e.g. Property Rates)

Monitoring of municipal finances and performance Project management of the municipal performance excellence (Vuna) awards, project management of the Municipal Transformation Monitoring program (Project Viability), implementation of the municipal performance management system in line with the IDP system, aided and monitored the implementation of free basic services and the development of a monitoring framework for provinces.

Represented the department in several internal and external bodies and task teams dealing with finances, policy, governance, project management, service delivery, and inter-governmental relations issues. Served as a Council Member in the Institute of Municipal Finance Officers {IMFO) Board of Directors. interacted with several stakeholders such as the Ministry, Parliamentary Committees, national departments, provinces, municipalities and private sector entities.

I was part of DPLG tep management structures and served in various departmenta! committees.

Position: Senior Manager — Capital Budgeting Company: Eastern Cape Provincial Treasury Period: May 2001 ~ February 2002 Scope of Work Done:

Deployed to set up this division for planning, coordinating and monitoring the implementation of the provincial Capital Expenditure Investments Plan.

Invariably, i managed the provincial Public-Private Partnerships program, Donor Capital Investments program, the provincial Integrated Sustainable Rural Development Strategy and other similar projects.

I managed a staff complement of 4 professional managers and served as a member of the provincial infrastructure cluster committee, the provincial central redeployment committee and various other departmental committees.

I reported to the Cabinet Budget Committee, the Legislature Finance Committee and to the DD-G Financial Management of the Provincial Treasury.

My work also entailed liaising with service providers, municipal councils and communities on capital investment projects in their areas.

EARLIER WORKING EXPERIENCE

Director — Budget Office Eastern Cape Provincial Treasury May 2000 — May 2001

Deputy Director – Provisioning Management Eastern Cape Provincial Treasury 1996 — 1997

Controller Eastern Cape Provincial Treasury October 1996 – November 1996

International Affairs Intern National Black Caucus of State Legislators, Washington, DC, USA 1996

Budgeting and Financial Management Intern City of Lauderhill Finance Department, Lauderhill, Florida 1995

Group Leader South Africa Student Orientation Program, Lincoln University, Pennsylvania 1995

Voting Station Manager Independent Electoral Commission 1994

Field Worker South African Communication Services 1994

Student Mentor University of the Western Cape 1993 – 1994 Position: Academic Assistant Company: University of the Western Cape Period: 1992 — 1994

SOFTWARE MS Office Suite Packages, Think Tools, FMS, Internet and e-mail,

COUNTRIES TRAVELLED USA, Germany, Israel, Britain, Sweden, Japan, Malaysia, China, Australia, Morocco, Punket, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Namibia, Botswana, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe, Netherlands, Mexico.

ACTIVITIES

Attend seminars, present papers in workshops, facilitate inter organizational programs, assist in planning projects, resolving conflicts and developing myself further through reading and discussions.

I have been elected to various leadership roles in the student, youth and other community/political organizations.

REFERENCES Available upon request

Maepa Tlaweng Pakie Mphahlele

BA Hons (Psychology); BA Hons (Economics); B Ed; HED; MSc (Financial Economics) (London)

Pakie began his career as a university lecturer in financial economics, later taking this into practice in the corporate banking environment at Standard Corporate and Merchant Bank, where he undertook economic development research.

Read more

From there he moved to National Treasury, then took up managerial positions as a business analyst for development agencies offering wholesale finance to micro-finance companies in South Africa (including the National Housing Finance Corporation and the Rural Housing Loan Fund). Paki founded Mafori Management Consultants in1998, a consulting firm specialising in micro and housing finance. He also offers strategic, operational and institutional assessment services to financial institutions.


Previous boards include:-
Pakie serves on the Board of Micro-Finance South Africa.

Timothy Mandla Sukazi

Timothy is a founding director of Tim Sukazi Inc. and was a former partner and director of Bowman Gilfillan Inc. where he served in a Participations Committee between 2010 to 2013. He is a qualified attorney who specialising in different field of the law, namely; Corporate and Commercial Law, Mergers and Acquisitions Regulatory law and Sports and Entertainment law.

Read more

His experience includes advising on; General Company Law, M&A transactions, capital market transactions mining and environmental law, Renewable Energy and regulatory matters, BEE transaction structuring, etc.

 

In the Sports and Entertainment law fields, he has experience includes advising on; Endorsement transactions, professional football players contracts, general commercial transactions pertaining to sport such as image and autograph rights regime, professional football clubs on industry regulatory matters, deals in other sporting codes such as boxing rugby, music artist agreements.

 

He is also the founder of Quality Talent Sports (“QT Sports”) one of the most prominent sports agencies in the country. Tim also served in the Ministerial Advisory Committee which was tasked to advise the Minister of Social Development between 2013 & 2014. He is currently serving as a member on the Gauteng Gambling Board.

Rachel Kalidass

Rachel Kalidass is a Chartered Accountant with 15 years of extensive experience in internal & external auditing, financial management, business process review, corporate governance and risk management. She is currently the Managing Director of R Kalidass and Associates, a practice of Chartered Accountants and Registered Auditors.

Read more

Rachel currently serves on the Audit Committee of the National Youth Development Agency (NYDA Independent Audit Committee Chairperson) leading them to achieve a clean audit opinion, Departments of Labour and Human Settlements (Audit Committee Member) and Compensation Fund (Independent Audit Committee Chairperson). She is also a current Board Member of the Free State Gambling and Liquor Authority (FSGLA).

 

She previously served as the Board Chairperson of the Mpumalanga Economic Growth Agency (MEGA), Board Member of the Mpumalanga Gambling Board (MGB), and as Independent Non-Executive Director of NEHAWU Investment Holdings, South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC), South African National Parks (SANPARKS) and the National Library of South Africa (NLSA).

 

R Kalidass and Associates was previously appointed by the KZN Department of Economic Development, Tourism and Environmental Affairs as the Specialised Investment Team for the province, responsible for facilitating strategic economic projects. Rachel was also appointed by the then Minster BEE Molewa to the Business Process Review Committee of the Department of Water Affairs, responsible for the turnaround on finance and audit related matters for the period 2011 to 2014.

Busisiwe Nzo

Busi (as she is affectionately known) is a practicing professional quantity surveyor (PrQs) registered with the South African Council of Quantity Surveying Profession (SACQSP). She is currently a partner (managing and active) at a private practice, Lakhanya Quantity Surveyors, which has offices in various regions of the country.

Read more

She is also a professional member of the Association of South African Quantity Surveyors (ASAQS). Her experience in the professional building industry spans more than 15 years, from working in reputable professional practices in Port Elizabeth and East London as a student during her university days and later as a candidate QS until she obtained her professional status. She has also worked as a provincial project manager at the Department of Human Settlements, on a secondment basis, where her involvement included the life-cycle tracking of projects, management of cash flow between provincial government and municipalities, compliance with project agreements, alignment of projects with municipal IDPs, project audits and quality management.

 

She was a quantity surveying part-time lecturer at some point, and now currently also as an academic course moderator at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University’s (NMMU) QS department. She has also been involved in emerging contractor development mentorship. She serves, for the second term, as a council member (equivalent to board) on the National Home Builders Registration Council (NHBRC) since 2012, serving on its, Audit & Risk Management Committee, Industry Advisory Committee, and Social Transformation Committee & IT Committee.

 

She also chairs its Technical Advisory & Claims Committee. She was nominated at board level to co-drive a Women Empowerment Programme (WEP) in the previous term 2012-2015, which now forms part of the organization’s Social Transformation agenda, with a focus on training and supporting women within the construction fraternity with technical and business skills. She is also a member and deputy chairperson of the advisory board to the QS department at NMMU, since 2012.

A Top 40 Under 40 Nelson Mandela Business Chamber young achiever in 2013.  She is a recipient of the Women in Property Network – Businesswoman of The Year (Entrepreneur) 2016 for the Western Cape region.

Nangamso Maponya 

Nangamso Maponya is an Investment Banking and Infrastructure Project Finance Professional, currently employed by the Development Bank of South Africa (DBSA). She was appointed as a Board Member of the Gauteng Partnership Fund (GPF) with effect from 01 April 2017. Nangamso is also a member of the Funding Committee as well as the Chairperson of the Audit and Risk Committee of the GPF.

Read more

She has extensive experience in Infrastructure Investment in the Transport, Logistics and ICT sectors having also participated in the funding and monitoring of a number of infrastructure projects such as Public Transport (including BRT’s) systems, ICT Broadband, Oil & Gas, Student Accommodation, Maritime Infrastructure and Private Equity Investment.

 

Nangamso is a candidate Chartered Banker MBA, with Bangor University and Institute of Bankers Scotland.

Zimbini Hill 

Trustee

Zimbini Hill was previously a Board Member of the National Homebuilders Registration Council (NHBRC) where she held the position of Chairman of Fund Investment Advisory and Finance committee (FAFC) and was a Member of the Builder Registrations and Home Enrolments Committee.

 

Read more

Zimbini Hill is a seasoned Media and Finance professional who is the founder of outdoor advertising company Hluma Media. She was appointed as a Board Member of the Gauteng Partnership Fund (GPF) with effect from 01 February 2018. She was previously a Board Member of the National Homebuilders Registration Council (NHBRC) where she held the position of Chairman of Fund Investment Advisory and Finance committee (FAFC) and was a Member of the Builder Registrations and Home Enrolments Committee.

 

Zimbini holds extensive experience in the Financial Services Industry, with a career spanning across various areas including Private Equity, Mergers and Acquisitions, Investment Research, Risk Management, and Investor Relations. Her specialties include strategy, communication and risk management strategies, financial analysis, investment valuations, investment research, and working knowledge of PFMA, Treasury Regulations, Companies Act and King 3.

Maseapo Kganedi

Trustee

Screen Shot 2018-10-08 at 15.21.48

Holds a B. Proc degree, LLB (Honours), LLM in Corporate Law and a Diploma in Legislative Drafting, from the University of Johannesburg. She also obtained a Certificate in Corporate Governance and a further Certificate in Pension Law, both from the University of South Africa (UNISA). She attended and completed training on Driving Government Performance at the Harvard Kennedy School in 2013.

Read more

Maseapo is an admitted Advocate of the High Court of South Africa and a legal and governance practitioner. She has over 20 years work experience in both private and public sector. She has a strong public-sector experience, having worked in senior management positions in various government departments, both provincial and national departments.

 

Throughout her career, she has developed and conducted training for government and the industry in areas of corporate governance, board effectiveness, effectiveness of company secretaries, legal and compliance, as well as contract management. She has advised on listing of public entities and has drafted governance documents such as enabling legislation, governance protocols as well as board and committee charters.

 

Maseapo has also worked as a legal adviser and company secretary for one of the largest pension funds in the Southern Africa. She sits on various boards of public entities as a member and is also a member of the Institute of Directors Southern Africa (IoDSA).

Moloantoa Geoffrey Makhubo

Trustee

Moloantoa Geoffrey “Geoff” Makhubo has been appointed as a Trustee of the GPF with effect from 1 July 2017. He currently serves as an elected Public Representative in the City of Johannesburg, where he has served as Councillor from being elected in May 2011.

Read more

Geoff is an accounting, finance and IT specialist with 16 years’ professional experience in a wide range of business management and specialist finance functions. From June 2011 to July 2016 Geoff was a Member of the Mayoral Committee responsible for Finance as well as Chairperson of the Governance Mayoral Cluster and Leader of Executive Business.

 

He is a Co-President of Global Fund for Cities Development based in Paris and in private business. Geoff holds B.Com degree from the University of the Witwatersrand and Post Graduate Diploma in Management from the Wits School of Governance.  He is currently completing his Msc Finance (Economic Policy) at the University of London and finalising Masters in Management (Public and Development Management) dissertation.